Lee Bolman

Research Using or Influenced by
Bolman and Deal's Four-Frame Model

Below is the work that we're currently aware of that includes use of the four-frame model.  If you are aware of works that we have not included, we would appreciate hearing about them. Please send me an e-mail.

One stream of research using concepts from the frames is represented in a body of work from Dick Heimovics, Bob Herman, and colleagues. They developed frame measures through content-analysis of critical incidents provided by respondents:

Heimovics, R. D., Herman, R. D., and Jurkiewicz, C. L. "The Political Dimension of Effective Nonprofit Executive Leadership," 1995, Vol.5, No.3, Spring 1995, Nonprofit Management and Leadership: A Quarterly Journal, 233-248. The article was voted the 1996 winner of the Peter F. Drucker Prize for the Best Scholarly Paper in Nonprofit Management and Leadership.

Heimovics, R. D., Herman, R. D., and Jurkiewicz Coughlin, C. L. "Executive Leadership and Resource Dependence in Nonprofit Organizations: a Frame Analysis. Public Administration Review, 1993, 53(5), 419-427.


Research on educational leaders

The studies below used frames concepts to look at educational leaders:

Bensimon, E. M. "The Meaning of `Good Presidential Leadership': a Frame Analysis." The Review of Higher Education, 1989, 12, 107-123.

Bensimon, E. M. "Viewing the Presidency: Perceptual Congruence Between Presidents and Leaders on their Campuses." The Leadership Quarterly, 1990, 1, 71-90.

Bista, M. B. And Glasman, N. S. Principals' Perceptions of Their Approaches to Organizational Leadership: Revisiting Bolman and Deal. Journal of School Leadership, 1998, 8, 26-48.

Cheng, Y. C. (1994). Principal's leadership as a critical indicator of school performance: Evidence from multi-levels of primary schools. School Effectiveness and School Improvement: An International Journal of Research, Policy, and Practice, 5(3), 299–317.

Shum, L. S. & Cheng, Y.C. (1997). Perceptions of woman principal’s leadership and teacher’s work attitudes. Journal of Educational Administration. 35(2), 168-188.

Wimpelberg, R. K. "Managerial Images and School Effectiveness." Administrators' Notebook, 1987, 32, 1-4.

Research Using Bolman/Deal Leadership Orientations Instrument

Another strand is work that Terry Deal and I have done using an instrument that we developed to measure leadership orientations:

Bolman, L. G. and Deal, T. E. "Leading and Managing: Effects of Context, Culture and Gender." Education Administration Quarterly, 1992, 28, 314-329.

Bolman, L. G. and Deal, T. E. "Reframing Leadership: the Effects of Leaders' Images of Leadership." In Clark, K. E., Clark, M. B, and Campbell, D. (Eds.). Impact of Leadership. Greensboro, North Carolina: Center for Creative Leadership, 1992.

Bolman, L. G. and Deal, T. E. "Leadership and Management Effectiveness: a Multi-Frame, Multi-Sector Analysis." Human Resource Management, 1991, 30, 509-534. (This is actually the most recent paper — the publication date is misleading.)

Elena Granell and I wrote a paper that extends the Leadership Orientations data into an international comparison:

Bolman, L. G., and Granell, E. "Flexible Leadership: A Comparative Analysis of Venezuelan Managers."  Paper presented at First International Conference, Ibero-American Academy of Management, Madrid, December, 1999.

Books or works that use frameworks similar to the four frames include:

Bergquist, W. H. The Four Cultures of the Academy. (Bergquist describes four cultures: collegial, managerial, developmental, and negotiating.)

Birnbaum, R. How Colleges Work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass: 1988. (Birnbaum uses four images that have parallels to the frames: collegial, bureaucratic, political, and anarchical.)


Doctoral Disserations

The largest body of frames-influenced work is in doctoral dissertations. The list includes:

Bowen, E.P.  Perspectives on the Leadership Styles of West Virginia University Extension Service County Program Coordinators. (Doctoral dissertation, West Virginia University, 2004).

Burks, Tom Dean. The use of organizational frames in leadership development. Thesis (Ed.D.)–Peabody College for Teachers of Vanderbilt University, 1992.

Cadwell, Karin. Redesigning Delivery of Care: A Four-Frame Analysis of Patient-Centered Innovations in Six U.S. Hospitals.  Union Institute Graduate Program, 1994.

Cantu, Dana Andreas. The Leadership Frames of Academic Deans Randomly Selected and Nominationed as Exceptionally Effective at Public Colleges and Universities. Arkansas State University, 1997.

Chang, T.   Leadership styles of department chairs and faculty utilization of instructional technology.  (Doctoral dissertation, West Virginia University , 2004).

Childress, Georgia Pearl Esters. An exploratory study of leadership orientation frames of United States-based Japanese and American leaders in the automotive manufacturing industry. Thesis (ED.D.)–Peabody College for Teachers of Vanderbilt University. 1994. 134p.

Davis, Thelma Irene . The ways administrators work: a study of the theoretical framers of leadership used by female and male secondary school principals in Pennsylvania. Thesis (Ed.D.)--Temple University, 1996. Dissertation Abstracts International. Volume: 57-06, Section: A, page: 2287.

DeFrank-Cole, Lisa M.  An exploration of the differences in female and male self-perceptions of presidential leadership styles at colleges and universities in West Virginia.   University of Pittsburgh, 2003.

Durocher, Elizabeth Antoinette. Leadership orientations of school administrators: a survey of nationally recognized school leaders. Thesis (Ed.D.)–Columbia University Teachers College, 1995. 145p. Dissertation Abstracts International. Volume: 57-02, Section: A, page: 0525.

Eckley, Mona Elaine Nelson.  The relationship between teacher empowerment and principal leadership styles (school organization).  Thesis (PH.D.)--The Pennsyulvania State University, 1997. 

Durocher, E. A. Leadership orientations of school administrators: a survey of nationally recognized school leaders. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57(02), 525A

Gilson, Joan Tedrow . A leadership study: public higher education administrators in Missouri compared with the Bolman-Deal database on multi-frame, multi-sector leadership. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Missouri-Kansas City. 1994. 163p.

Griffin, Marshall S.  A Comparison of the Leadership Orientations of Chairpersons of Biology and English Departments at Baccalaureate and Master's Institutions in the Southern Region.  Dissertation, University of West Virginia, 2005.

Harlow, Janice Heim. Educational Leadership: a Frame Analysis. Thesis (Ed.D.)–Seattle University, 1994. 208p.  Dissertation Abstracts International, 55(08), 2227A.

Harrell, Amy Patterson.  An analysis of the perceived leadership orientation of senior student affairs officers and the work satisfaction of their professional staff subordinates in the North Carolina Community College System.   Doctoral Dissertation, East Carolina University, 2006.

Hollingsworth, Connie. Leadership characteristics and work ethic of Tennessee agricultural extension service home economists. Thesis (Ph.D.)--The University of Tennesseee.  1995. 147p.

Lathan, Calvin Arthur, III. The Navy environmental health officer: analysis and comparison of the accession route of the naval environmental health officers that possess strong leadership abilities. Thesis (Ed.D.)–University of Southern California, 1993.

Martinez, Richard Stephen. Self and administrative designee perceptions of leadership orientations of elementary principals who have and have not completed the California School Leadership Academy. Thesis (Ed.D.)– University of La Verne, 1996.

Mathis, Saralyn Grenga, (1999)  The Relationship of Leadership Frame Use of Departmental Chairs to Faculty Job Satisfaction as Perceived by Selected Departmental Faculty Members, Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences VOL 60(6-A) 1999 1936.

Metze, Tony A.  Multi-Frame Leadership with South Carolina Lutheran Clergy.  Gordon Conwell Theological Seminary, 2004. Available online at http://www.tren.com/e-docs/search.cfm?oid=x&action=query&title=Carolina 

Miron, Dorina. A Pilot Study to Assess the Relevance of Bolman and Deal’s Framing Theory to the Management of Stress in Newsrooms. University of Missouri, 1994. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55(05), 1158A.

Mosser, N.R.  A study of the relationship between the perceived leadership style of nursing chairpersons and the organizational climate in baccalaureate nursing programs.  Dissertation Abstracts International. UMI Dissertation Services Item: AA19999952.

Peasley, Robert Bruce. The California School Leadership Academy: its effects on the leadership orientations of California secondary principals. Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of Laverne. 1992.

Rivers, Peggy G . A frame analysis of principals’ leadership orientations (multiframe thinking). Thesis (Ed.D.)–University of Central Florida, 1996.

Scott, David Kent . An exploratory study of leadership and organizational climate/culture of NCAA and NAIA Finalists for the 1995-1996 Sears Directors’ Cup (Athletic Directors). University of Northern Colorado, 1997. Dissertation Abstracts International. Volume: 58-08, Section: A, page: 3063.

Small, T.T. (2002).  A study of the relationship between the perceived leadership style of nursing chairpersons and the organizational effectiveness of baccalaureate nursing programs.  Dissertation Abstracts International. UMI Dissertation Services Item: AA13055943.

Strickland, J. S. Leadership perspectives of Tennessee school leaders. East Tennessee State University, 1992. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53(04), 1018a.

Suzuki, Yoko Caryl. A comparative study of the leadership orientations frames of California, Asian and other public school principals. Thesis (Ed.D.)–University of LaVerne. 1994. 121p.

Washington, Nancy Gay. Special Education Administrators: Paths of Preparation and Models of Practice (Oklahoma, Compliance). Thesis (Ed.D.)--Oklahoma State University, 1996.

Winans, David P.  School Board/Superintendent frames of reference from school distrcts engaged in systemic change. Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of Kansas, 1995. 103p.